I consider grapheme systems and subsequently formalized representations, i.e., type, as the sum of particles. Deﬁning these particles not only provides means for a better understanding of the underlying harmonics and dynamics, but also creates parameters for the artiﬁcial creation and computerized measurement of type and typography. Computerized measurement could even form the basis for parametrized
The ﬁgure above shows the systems involved in the creation of written letters (1–4). By adding the factors formalization and idiom the result is a formal group of graphemes, which may form a ‘typeface’. Of course, the tweaking of the ﬁrst four systems already creates personal structures and patterns, but type design offers more options for adding sophisticated and reﬁned details, i.e., idiom, than writing with a preﬁxed or partly customizable tool, such as a broad nib or a ﬂexible pointed pen.